Periodontal (gum) disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, are serious infections that left untreated can lead to tooth loss.
The word periodontal literally means “around the tooth “. Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth. Periodontal disease can affect one tooth or many teeth. It begins when the bacteria in plaque causes the gums to become inflamed.
- Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes the gums to become red, swollen and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good home care.
- Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritates the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turns on itself and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth forming pockets (a space between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may need to be removed.
There are may forms of periodontitis. These include the following:
- Aggressive Periodontitis - This occurs in patients who are otherwise clinically healthy. Common features include rapid attachment loss and bone destruction.
- Chronic Periodontitis - This results in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment and bone loss. This is the most frequently occurring form of periodontitis and is characterized by pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. It is prevalent in adults but can occur at any age. Progression of attachment loss usually occurs slowly but periods of rapid progression can occur.
- Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease - This often begins at a young age. Systemic conditions such as heart disease, respiratory disease and diabetes are associated with this form of periodontitis.
- Necrotizing periodontal disease - This is an infection characterized by necrosis of gingival tissues, periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. These lesions are most commonly observed in individuals with systemic conditions.